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The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) generates state-level estimates for 23 measures of substance use and mental health problems for four age groups: the entire state population over age 12 (12+); individuals age 12 to 17; individuals age 18 to 25; and individuals age 26 and older (26+). Since state estimates of substance use and abuse were first generated using the combined 2002-2003 NSDUHs and continuing until the most recent state estimates based on the combined 2005-2006 surveys, Utah has been among those States with the lowest rates on the following measures (Table 1).
Table 1: Utah ranked among the lowest States on the fol owing substance abuse measures for all survey years
|Past Month Illicit Drug Use||12-17, 18-25|
|Past Month Marijuana Use||All Age Groups|
|Past Year Marijuana Use||All Age Groups|
|Perception of Great Risk Associated with Monthly Marijuana Use||12-17, 18-25|
|Past Year Cocaine Use||18-25|
|Past Month Alcohol Use||12+, 12-17, 12-20, 18-25|
|Past Month Binge Alcohol Use||All Age Groups|
|Perception of Great Risk Associated with Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week||12+, 12-17, 18-25|
|Past Month Tobacco Use||All Age Groups|
|Past Month Cigarette Use||All Age Groups|
|Perception of Great Risk Associated with Smoking One or Two Packs of Cigarettes a Day||All Age Groups|
Abuse and Dependance
Questions in NSDUH are used to classify persons as being dependent on or abusing specific substances based on criteria specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). On the global measure of any dependence or abuse of illicit drugs or alcohol, Utah has consistently ranked at or below the national rate for all age groups. This is particularly true for past year alcohol dependence or abuse among those individuals age 18 to 25 (Chart 1).
Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities
According to the National Survey of Substance in 2006 offered some form of outpatient care Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS),3 the number (108 of 133, or 81%). An additional 45 facilities of treatment facilities in Utah has increased from offered some form of residential care. Ten 118 in 2003 to 133 in 2006. The majority of this facilities offered opioid treatment programs, increase is accounted for by the addition of 12 and 67 physicians were certified to provide private for-profit facilities. In 2006, there were 57 buprenorphine treatment for opiate addiction.private nonprofit facilities and 51 private for-profit In 2006, 63 facilities (47%) received some form treatment facilities. One facility was owned by an of Federal, State, county, or local government tribal government and the remainder were operated funds, and 53 facilities had agreements or by Federal, State, and local governments.contracts with managed care organizations for the Although facilities may offer more than one provision of substance abuse treatment services.modality of care, the majority of facilities in Utah
State treatment data for substance use disorders are derived from two primary sources�''an annual one-day census in N-SSATS and annual treatment admissions from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS).4 In the 2006 N-SSATS survey, Utah showed an one-day census of 12,977 clients in treatment, the majority of whom (11,191 or 86%) were in outpatient treatment. Of the total number of clients in treatment on this date, 1,587 (12%) were under the age of 18.Chart 2 shows the percentage of admissions mentioning particular drugs or alcohol at the time of admission.5 Across the last 15 years, there has been a steady decline in the number of admissions mentioning alcohol as a substance of abuse and increases in the mentions of marijuana and heroin. The sharpest increase, however, has been in the number of treatment admissions with methamphetamine.Across the years for which TEDS data are available, Utah has seen a substantial shift in the constellation of problems present at treatment admission. Alcohol-only admissions have declined from over 56 percent of all admissions in 1992 to just over 20 percent in 2006. Concomitantly, drug-only admissions have increased from 9 percent in 1998 to 46 percent in 2006 (Chart 3).
Unmet Need For Treatment
NSDUH defines unmet treatment need as an individual who meets the criteria for abuse of or dependence on illicit drugs or alcohol according to the DSM-IV, but who has not received specialty treatment for that problem in the past year.The NSDUH measures for individuals needing but not receiving treatment for drug and alcohol use are consistent with the change in the type of admissions to treatment seen above. For example, Utah has seen an increasing need for drug use treatment since the 2002-2003, with the rate for the population age 12 and older ranking among the highest in the country in 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 (Chart 4).The rate for individuals needing and not receiving treatment for alcohol use, however, has consistently remained among the lowest in the country (Chart 5).